The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions while operating in the boiler units TP-100 at the Burshtyn TPP.

Students Name: Mushtuk Olena
Qualification Level: magister
Speciality: Heat and Power Engineering
Institute: Institute of Power Engineering and Control Systems
Mode of Study: part
Academic Year: 2022-2023 н.р.
Language of Defence: ukrainian
Abstract: Mushtuk О.I., Kravets T.Yu. (supervisor). The reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions while operating in the boiler units TP-100 at the Burshtyn TPP. Master’s thesis. – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Lviv, 2022. Extended abstract. An important problem today is the protection of the environment from its pollutants. This problem arose as a result of imperfect human economic activity. The increase in human consumption of energy is accompanied by an increase in emissions of harmful substances that pollute the environment. The largest, permanent sources of air pollution are thermal power plants (TPPs) operating on coal. They emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2), sulfur oxides (SO2 and SO3), solid particles, carbon oxides, aldehydes, as well as organic acids, and so on. [1]. At the same time, at least 40% of the total amount of toxic nitrogen oxides emitted into the atmosphere is accounted for by TPPs. The processes of formation of nitrogen oxides during fuel combustion are not fully studied and require further detailed refinement of the complex kinetics of the chemical process in combination with the study of heat and mass transfer processes and its impact on the kinetics of the process as a whole. The scheme developed in [2] was adopted as the basis for the process of NO oxide formation, according to which the quantitative formation of nitrogen oxides is determined by the reaction between atomic oxygen and molecular nitrogen. The process of atomic oxygen formation is carried out by dissociation of the O2 molecule. Based on the analysis of research results in [2, 3], we can identify three main groups of formed nitrogen oxides during the flame combustion of fuel in boilers: thermal, "fast" and fuel. According to the literature [1, 4, 5], the main technological methods of combating nitrogen oxide emissions for solid fuel boilers are to reduce the maximum flame temperature and reduce the concentration of oxidant reaction. The relevance of this work lies in the development and research of new, effective measures to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides in boiler units TP-100 of the Burshtyn TPP during operation. Study object - process of formation of nitrogen oxides during the burning of solid organic fuel in boiler units of thermal power plants. Scope of research - reduction of harmful emissions of nitrogen oxides when burning solid organic fuel in the TP-100 boiler. Goal of research - development and implementation of new, effective measures to reduce emissions of nitrogen oxides in boiler units TP-100 of Burshtyn TPP during operation. In the first section of the work, the general characteristics of nitrogen oxides, the physico-chemical basis of their formation, as well as the design of burner devices of steam circuits are given. The second chapter presents methods of reducing the formation of nitrogen oxides during the burning of solid organic fuel and describes the technologies and methods for their implementation. The third chapter is devoted to consideration of burners with low emissions of nitrogen oxides during coal combustion and their design features. The fourth chapter presents the results of the reconstruction of the PT-100 boiler of the Burshtyn TPP to ensure its operation with low emissions of nitrogen oxides. Graphical dependences of the influence of various parameters on the concentration of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and heat losses with chemical underburning during operation of the TP-100 boiler with a reconstructed burner of the DRB-4Z type were constructed. The calculation of the specific emissions of nitrogen oxides by the TP-100 boiler unit, during operation in real working conditions, is presented in the fifth section of this work. In the economic part of the work, the calculation of capital costs for reconstruction, environmental costs for emissions of nitrogen oxides before and after reconstruction was carried out. The payback period of this reconstruction is calculated, which is 1.15 years. The automation section has developed automatic control of fuel combustion processes in the TP-100 boiler unit of the Burshtyn TPP. Keywords - boiler TP-100, burner, coal, fuel, oxygen, nitrogen oxides, flue gases. References. 1. Kotler VR Nitrogen oxides in boiler flue gases. M .: Energoatomizdat, 1987. - 144 p. 2. Zeldovich B.Ya., Sadovnikov P.Ya., Frank-Kamenetsky DA Nitrogen oxidation during combustion. M .: Nauka, 1947. - 146 p. 3. Environmental technologies at thermal power plants and nuclear power plants. Protecting the atmosphere from harmful emissions from thermal power plants and nuclear power plants: a textbook. / A.S. Носков, З.П. Pak, W.W. Саломатов. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo NGTU, 1998. - 203 p. 4. Sigal I.Ya. Protection of the air pool during fuel combustion. / 2nd ed., Reworked. and ext. L .: Nedra, 1988. - 321 p. 5. Mysak Y.S., Ivasyk Y.F., Humnytskyi Y.M. The influence of operating parameters of a steam boiler on the output of nitrogen oxides during combustion according to a three-stage scheme//Energetics and electrification. – 2000. – No. 4. - pp. 41-44.