The Russian-Ukrainian war through the prism of essays and artistic reports: the problem of the spread of genres and their theoretical identification
Students Name: Berendii Yurii Serhiiovych
Qualification Level: magister
Institute: Institute of Jurisprudence and Psychology
Mode of Study: full
Academic Year: 2022-2023 н.р.
Language of Defence: ukrainian
Abstract: For a long time, materials about the war waged by the Russian Federation against Ukraine have not appeared on the front pages of not only the Ukrainian, but also the world media. This topic is so relevant that it is revealed in all genres of journalism - from news to fiction journalism. The latter is represented by high-quality examples of military essay writing, it is not uncommon to come across pamphlets, even feuilletons, characteristic of our time. But a special place among all genres of journalism is occupied by those that reveal this all-Ukrainian and even global problem through human stories, through the lives of individual people. These genres in journalism are the essay, which is traditional in the theory of the press, and, compared to it, the understudied artistic reportage, which represents such a phenomenon as "new journalism". Specifically, it had a place to appear in the 60-70s of the 20th century. appeared in the USA. Its appearance was caused by a number of objective reasons, primarily related to social events, as well as specific facts and human activities, including autobiographies, travel stories, and memoirs. The object of the study was the essays and feature reports about the heroes of the Russian-Ukrainian war, published in the Ukrainian mass media. The subject of the study was the interest of Ukrainian mass media in covering the problem of the Russian-Ukrainian war in the genres of essay and artistic reportage, as well as the defining characteristics of each of these two types of journalistic texts. The purpose of the study was a clear desire to determine the level of popularity of essays and artistic reports about the Russian-Ukrainian war as genres of human stories in the Ukrainian mass media, as well as to theoretically define these quite similar, yet separate genres of journalism. New journalism has a number of distinctive features. First of all, this is the so-called fictionalization of the fact. Another distinctive feature of new journalism is the tactic of deep immersion in the material. The main thing in this creative experiment is the demonstration of a real era. A retreat from classical origins, a combination of genres, a desire to change forms. The war in which Ukraine found itself is taking place against the background of globalization processes of differentiation of the genres of theoretical and practical journalism. Reporting journalism in Ukraine is undergoing a process of transformation and acquiring features of literary genres. Thus, we are now witnessing the mass spread of new reportage genres, among which feature reportage occupies a prominent place. The specificity of this genre consists in the active use of linguistic means, the literary word, the analysis of the most urgent and painful problems of society in an artistic format. According to all the mentioned features, the genre of artistic reportage can be identified with a literary essay. If we talk about the problem of spreading the essay genre, we can draw a completely logical conclusion that, being a multifaceted journalistic genre, it migrated to other spheres of public life. An event and problem essay turns into an artistic reportage, a travel essay takes the form of a travel blog, a portrait essay turns into a photo reportage with an artistic description. So, in the course of a detailed analysis, we found out that despite the visual similarity of the genres of artistic reportage and essay, it is still worth concluding that they are somewhat different. Keywords: reportage, essay, journalism, new journalism, fiction.